There are several causes that can lead to a loss of pregnancy, and therefore a spontaneous or involuntary abortion. We explain the 4 most common.

Abortion basically consists of the interruption and termination, prematurely, of the pregnancy. This disruption can happen completely natural (and unintentional), or voluntarily. In turn, we refer to spontaneous abortion to that which occurs spontaneously, and must be differentiated from induced abortion (which is one in which the termination of pregnancy is voluntary).

When we are faced with a spontaneous abortion, it means that it is a natural abortion, which occurs when a fetus or embryo is lost due to natural causes before the 20th week of pregnancy.

There are different causes that can lead to the appearance of a miscarriage or spontaneous abortion, the most common being when the death of the fetus is due to congenital or genetic malformations, which cause its normal development to be unviable.

However, there are also other causes that can influence pregnancy loss. Next we are going to talk to you about which are the most common and common.

Poor genetic or congenital formation

The highest incidence in this type of case occurs especially until week 6 or 7 of pregnancy.  This type of abortion occurs when the fetus is not forming correctly, and the woman’s body expels it because its development is totally unviable.

The most common is that the woman does not even find out that she has been pregnant, since she understands that her menstruation has come late, and she does not observe any other symptoms that may make her suspect a failed pregnancy, especially if the abortion it occurs very early. In fact, it is estimated that around 37.5% of early abortions occur mainly between 10 and 13 weeks of pregnancy.

Within this cause we can find the possibility that it is and an embryonic pregnancy, popularly also known as the hollow egg. It occurs when the fertilized egg does not become an embryo, so it has not formed.

Deferred or withheld abortion

Known by the name of missed abortion, or also simply as delayed abortion, it occurs mainly when the fetal heart has stopped beating, so that it can only be diagnosed at the time a follow-up ultrasound is being carried out.

In this way, this type of abortion occurs when the fetus dies inside the mother’s body, and the mother retains it for several weeks, without expelling the fetus, the placenta, or the rest of its own products that have formed up to the time of gestation.

How is it treated? When diagnosed, medications can be prescribed that help expel fetal tissue, although sometimes it is possible that the woman’s body is able to expel the remains of the pregnancy partially or totally, without treatment. However, when this does not happen, and the drugs do not help, it is necessary to perform dilation and curettage, which is a surgical procedure in which the cervix is ​​dilated and the fetal tissue present in the uterus is scraped off.

Cervical incompetence

When a woman is pregnant, to support the weight of the fetus (especially after 14 or 15 weeks of pregnancy) the cervix must be tightly closed. But if the cervix is ​​loose, has not closed well, and is not diagnosed in time, the fetus may “fall” and cause an abortion due to cervical incompetence.

How is it treated? If it is diagnosed early, a cervical cerclage is usually performed, which consists of closing the cervix by basting it with the help of a special thread. Then, at the time of delivery, this thread is removed.

Mola vesicular (o hidatiforme)

It is a degeneration in the form of vesicles that occurs in the placenta, which gradually invade the entire egg. This degeneration can be complete (which means that it has completely invaded the egg), or embryo (when the embryo still remains, but it is insurmountable).

The most obvious physical symptom is that the volume of the uterus is much greater than it would actually correspond in the weeks of pregnancy in which the woman is. In addition, it can be detected in an ultrasound examination or by blood loss.

In turn, if an analysis is carried out for the pregnancy hormone, also known as HCG, it is likely that its values ​​have increased dramatically.

How is it treated? To treat it, a suction curettage should be performed. In addition, the pathology must be monitored and reviewed for at least one year since this disease can continue to progress even when curettage has occurred. During this time a new pregnancy must be avoided.


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