The spots on the skin have an origin and a treatment. That is why it is important to go to a dermatologist when spots appear, usually on the face.
There are several areas on the face where dark spots tend to appear, but mainly on the forehead, chin, cheeks, nose and upper lip. In most cases they are a typical sign of melasma, a common skin condition, which tends to primarily affect women between the ages of 20 and 40.
This melasma refers to an increase in pigmentation -or darkening- of the skin that is characterized by the appearance of irregular spots but with clearly defined contours, which vary between different shades of brown (and less frequent in bluish or gray).
Melasma also tends to be frequent during the second or third trimester of pregnancy, and in approximately 30% of cases it tends to persist after this period.
However, it is not the only cause that causes the appearance of spots on the skin. Therefore, the key is to discover what are the causes that cause their formation, in order to be able to prevent them more easily.
What are the causes of skin blemishes?
Before talking about skin spots, we should know that our skin contains a series of cells known as melanocytes, responsible for producing skin pigmentation, as they contain melanin, a natural substance that produces skin color. (and its pigmentation).
Thus, if in a part of our skin we have a pale or discolored area, it will mean that the presence of melanocytes in this area is low. And if the area is hyperpigmented, it will mean practically the opposite.
The spots that habitually and commonly tend to appear on the skin are usually dark or pale in color. Its tonality, in fact, makes it possible to differentiate whether the dermatologist -or cosmetic specialist- is dealing with hyperpigmentation (first case), or if it is depigmentation (second case). Or, what is the same, if the skin increases its tone to a perceptible degree, or loses it.
In a certain sense, the origin of the skin spots itself is unknown, although as a general rule there are a series of factors that can cause their appearance. Among the most prominent, we find the following:
- Exposure to UV rays. It is one of the main external causes of the appearance of blemishes on the skin. This is because ultraviolet rays tend to damage cells, something that becomes even worse if we also use certain cosmetic products or fragrances that, by containing alcohol and exposing ourselves to the sun with them, aggravate the problem. They are medically known by the name of solar lentigo, and when they are simple, it is common to confuse them with freckles.
- Genetics, family history. Both genes and family history have a direct influence on the appearance of spots on the skin. In addition, it is common for them to appear in people with fair skin and blond or red hair.
- Hormonal. It is the common cause, for example, during times when it is normal for the level of hormones to vary greatly, as it usually does during pregnancy. And, in most cases, melasma (or cloth) usually appears. These are usually temporary spots, arising on the forehead, chin, and cheeks, and may resolve on their own after childbirth.
- Cosmetics or fragrances. Either because of its alcohol content (and exposing ourselves to the sun after putting it on our skin), or because it contains dyes with mercury preparations, which tend to stain the skin.
- Photosensitizing drugs or medications.
- Age. In this case, they are known medically by the name of simple lentigo, and consist of small spots, with a brown hue that can vary from darker to lighter. They have a size that can range from a few millimeters to 2 centimeters, and in most cases they are benign.
Treatment of skin blemishes
The first step to treat skin blemishes is to see a dermatologist, since they will carry out a diagnosis of the type of hyperpigmentation, then determining whether or not it is in the presence of melasma.
One of the most used treatments has to do with a depigmenting product that brings together three effective elements against melasma: tretinoin, hydroquine and fluocinolone acetonide.
In this sense, the most recent research in the dermatological area has been able to verify how the joint action of these three active ingredients, combined -yes- in a cream that is applied only on the spots- offer the possibility that they can go little too little fading spots, so the patient can see short-term results.