Health and MedicineDiseasesConjunctivitis: What is it? Symptoms, causes and treatment

Conjunctivitis: What is it? Symptoms, causes and treatment

Conjunctivitis is one of the most common eye infections. But what are its causes and what symptoms does it produce? Find out everything you need to know about her.

Conjunctivitis is an eye disease that consists of inflammation of the conjunctive layer, this being the transparent mucous membrane that lines the eyeball. This can be according to its cause: bacterial (produced by different bacteria), viral (produced by the adenovirus family of viruses) and allergic or autoimmune (typically seasonal, frequently associated with sinusitis).

But they are not the only causes. It can also be produced by the presence of a foreign body, caused by the misuse of contact lenses or lenses; and finally, those generated by trauma, generated by scratches or blows.

In any case, as you can imagine, it is a tremendously common eye condition, which especially affects the little ones in the house, especially because of the habit they have of putting their hands and fingers in their eyes before having cleaned them. .

Symptoms according to the type of conjunctivitis

Bacterial Conjunctivitis

The symptoms are: tearing and discharge of greenish or yellowish liquid, congestion of the paranasal sinuses, runny nose, irritation and gritty sensation in the eye.

Other symptoms may also occur, such as swelling of the conjunctiva and having red eyes.

The symptoms of bacterial conjunctivitis usually develop first in one eye, but show up in the second eye 2 to 5 days after infection.

Viral conjunctivitis

The symptoms are: yellow crusts, appearance of a diffuse and slight pink tone in the eye, hyperemic sclera, epiphora, hyperemic conjunctivae and binocular erythema.

Swelling of the conjunctiva and constant tearing of the eyes may also occur. The symptoms of viral conjunctivitis usually appear first in one eye, but symptoms are seen in the second in a short time.

allergic conjunctivitis

Its symptoms tend to be common. They are the following: itching, red eyes, swelling in the conjunctiva, constant tearing in the eyes and dilation of the blood vessels due to histamine.

Causes of conjunctivitis

When conjunctivitis is caused by an infection, it is most commonly caused by a viral infection. Bacterial infections, allergies, external irritants and dryness are also common causes. Bacterial and viral infections are contagious and can be passed from person to person, but can also be transmitted through direct contact with objects or water.

The most common cause of viral conjunctivitis is adenovirus -a family of viruses that infects both humans and animals-, herpes simplex, which can be serious and requires treatment with Acyclovir (an antiviral drug used to treat infections caused by chicken pox and human herpes virus). Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis is highly contagious and is caused by an enterovirus.

The main cause of acute bacterial conjunctivitis is staphylococcus aureus. Although rare, super acute cases are caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Neisseria meningitidis. Chronic cases of bacterial conjunctivitis are those that last more than 3 weeks, and are usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxella lacunata, or Gram-negative enteric flora.

Conjunctivitis can also be caused by allergens such as pollen, perfumes, cosmetics, smoke, dermatophagoidespteronyssinus (dust mites), and eye drops.

Treatments according to the type of conjunctivitis

65% of conjunctivitis cases resolve without treatment, within two to five days; antibiotic pre-registration is not necessary in most cases.

Treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis:

They usually resolve without treatment. Topical antibiotics will be necessary only if no improvement is seen after two days. In people who do not receive antibiotics, recovery occurs in 4.8 days, with antibiotics used immediately in 3.3 days, and with a delay in the application of these a total of 3.9 days.

No serious effects have been noted with or without treatment. Since they speed up the healing of conjunctivitis, their use is also reasonable.

Treatment of viral conjunctivitis:

Viral conjunctivitis usually resolves on its own and does not require any specific treatment.  Antihistamines, or mast cell stabilizer should be used to help eliminate symptoms.

Treatment of allergic conjunctivitis:

For allergic conjunctivitis, cool water poured on the face with the face tilted down constricts the capillaries; artificial tears sometimes relieve discomfort in mild cases of conjunctivitis.  In more severe cases, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antihistamines may be prescribed. Persistent allergic conjunctivitis may also require topical steroid drops.

Conjunctivitis is a disease that can be spread relatively easily. If you or someone close to you suffers from conjunctivitis, take the appropriate precautions so that the disease does not spread to other individuals or to you; If you suffer from it, follow these tips and see a doctor for proper treatment.

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